The project is the outcomes of the project research that was conducted at Mlimani Primary School that located at Kinondoni Municipality in Dar es Salaam City. This project was conducted as the part of our daily studies of our course as undergraduate pupils pursuing Bachelor of Education in Psychology (Bed Psy) as its announced by the department of Educational Psychology and Curriculum Studies under the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) School of Education (SoED).
This project aim at practicing what we have been taught in the class session which is Psychology of Exceptionalities into real life situation. The main theme bound in this project was to identify pupils with special needs education at Mlimani Primary School. After the work we came to realise the availability of pupils who might need special education but were not yet identified and not receiving any special treatment.
The project was simple research which use interview and observation methods in collecting data from Mlimani Primary School personnel and reviewing some information from various literatures.
Eventually we came to realize that, there is a need to established environment to identify pupils and pupils who need special care and treatment in an inclusive manner. This is because there are various disabilities persisting among pupils but Schools have no enough knowledge firstly, to know whether is disability or not.
And it is this situation which the project exposes to teachers at Mlimani Primary School to be able to know what those possible disabilities available among pupils are and how to deal with those identified disabilities and disorders.
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Generally pupils with special need at Mlimani primary School are given support which make them easy to study, build social friendships, and interaction among pupils themselves and even with the teachers, these makes the performance to pupils with special need to be good, the analysis of the study also indicate that teachers are trying their level best to make sure the pupils with special needs are provided their needs to help in studies.
Although the environment for pupils with special needs at Mlimani primary School is good for them to study but there is no professional teachers who specialized to deal with the pupils with special needs at Mlimani primary School, therefore teachers use experience to take care pupils with disabilities something which makes them to lack some skill of handling pupils with disabilities, for example the way teachers arrange pupils within the class, there some pupils with disabilities sit back of the class, thing which is against the profession of dealing with pupils with disabilities, pupils with disabilities should always sit in front in order to hear what teacher is teaching.
The study included also evaluation of the relationship between needs provided to pupils with special needs and the performance of the pupils with special needs.it was generally found that the needs and care which are given to student with special needs at Mlimani primary School like health care, ways of teaching, cooperation of teachers with pupils and also cooperation of teachers with parents, paved the grater way to raise the performance of the pupils with special needs, therefore these relationships makes pupils with special needs to perform well in the class.
An assessment methods used by teachers to evaluate the performance of the pupils with special needs was also considered in the study. It was found that, teachers use examinations, tests and portfolio to evaluate the performance of the pupils with special needs, hence these assessment tools helps teachers to identify difficulties facing pupils with disabilities in their studies, therefore identification makes teachers easy to help and assist pupils with disabilities to study well and even get good grade in examinations to increase performance.
Apart from a number of conclusions made for the pupils with disabilities at Mlimani primary School recommendations are also provided for further understanding of the project. Similarly, mitigation measures are suggested in order to increase efficiency of taking care and performance of the pupils with disabilities.
ii. Analysis of School environment
The environment around Mlimani primary School surrounded with residency, roads and planted trees which is unsafe to pupils with disabilities like the pupils with albinism, and those with intellectual deficit, therefore it is recommended that securities should be increased and the cooperation of teachers with parent and other people around School also should be increased to make sure that student with disabilities are in safe environment for studying.
iii. Analysis for teacher’s strategies, materials and method of teaching
The strategies and teaching methods used with teachers in teaching and assisting pupils with disabilities is group discussion which is good because it increase awareness, confidence and participation of pupils in group and individual studies, it is recommended that teachers should emphasize ability training and skills training where pupils will be taught specifically what they are able to learn and learn related skills they have.
1. Increasing professional teachers
In order to increase efficient in the whole process of dealing and taking care student with disabilities at Mlimani primary professional teacher who specialized in children with disabilities should be brought this will increase efficient to assist pupils with disabilities, hence even their performance will raise more than now.
2. Differentiated teaching methods, materials and strategies
Teachers also should use differentiated techniques of teaching to assist pupils with disabilities for example teacher may use different materials to keep busy gifted and talented pupils also different methods and strategies also should be applied to make all pupils with disabilities understand the subject matter which teacher are teaching.
3. Financial support
The financial support which are provided at Mlimani primary School to support pupils with disabilities is relatively not enough to compare with needs required with pupils with disabilities therefore government and the university through the college of education (soed), should make sure enough financial support are provided to Mlimani primary School in order to fulfill the needs of pupils with disabilities.
4. School infrastructures
The infrastructures around Mlimani primary School should be constructed like small way from the class to staff, toilets, classes, teacher’s offices, siting desk, doors and windows, when these infrastructures will be available will make the pupils with disabilities to study effectively because they will be able to move from one place to another as they want, therefore they studies will managed easy.
5. Increase of heath service in School.
Health services like first aids and medicine such as pad for girls are absent, these make difficult for teacher to take care pupils with disabilities, therefore when these health services will be provided it will make easy for teachers to manage pupils with disabilities both boys and girls, so it is a duty of the government and university through School of education to make sure these health services are provided and are available at Mlimani primary School in order to make pupils with disability confident in their studies.
6. Parent’s involvements
The parents should be involved in the process of assisting pupils with disabilities, the cooperation and collaboration between teachers and parents must be increased, for example when a student gets any problems where they are at School or home teachers and parents should cooperate together in order to assist a pupils, this will increase motivation to pupils to study well.
7. Use of extra time and remedial to assist pupils with disabilities.
Teachers should use extra time and remedial to help pupils with disabilities to study, for example when teacher discover the pupils does not understand what he or she taught in class it is better for a teacher to use extra time or remedial to assist pupils, this will make pupils to understand the subject matter and hence the performance of the pupils to increase.
8. Ability and skills training
Teachers instead of teaching student using normal methods of assisting pupils with disabilities they should also teach them ability and skills training, at this training student will be able to learn according to their abilities and even learn the skills they are able to learn, therefore ability training and skill training is adhered to be taught to pupils with disabilities. (Beecham,1992)
9. Group learning
Teachers also should emphases group learning where the pupils with the ability to understand early be able to assist other pupils who does not understand when teacher was teacher was teaching in class, this make the pupils to understand the subject matter in the absence of the teacher.