Manual of the American Psychological Association – 6th Edition
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was first published in 1929 as a seven-page “standard of procedure, to which exceptions would doubtless be necessary, but to which reference might be made in cases of doubt” (Bentley et al., 1929, p. 57). Eighty years later, we launch the sixth edition of the Publication Manual in the same spirit. Over the years, the Publication Manual has grown by necessity from a simple set of style rules to an authoritative source on all aspects of scholarly writing, from the ethics of duplicate publication to the word choice that best reduces bias in language.
The rules of APA Style are drawn from an extensive body of psychological literature, from editors and authors experienced in scholarly writing, and from recognized authorities on publication practices. This edition of the Publication Manual has been extensively revised to reflect new standards in publishing and new practices in information dissemination. Since the last edition of the manual was published, we have gone from a population that reads articles to one that “consumes content.” New technologies have made increasingly sophisticated analyses possible, just as they have accelerated the dissemination of those analyses in multiple forms, from blogs to personal web postings to articles published in online databases.
To provide readers with guidance on how these and other developments have affected scholarly publishing, we have reordered and condensed the manual significantly. Our first goal was to simplify the reader’s job by compiling all information on a topic in a single place. We have ordered information in accordance with the publication process, beginning with the idea stage and ending with the publication stage. We have retained and strengthened the basic rules of APA writing style and the guidelines on avoiding bias in language that were first published by APA more than 30 years ago. Most important, we have significantly expanded guidance on ethics, statistics, journal article reporting standards, electronic reference formats, and the construction of tables
Key to this revision is an updated and expanded web presence, which exponentially increases the information we are able to provide. At www.apastyle.org, readers will find a full range of resources for learning APA Style as well as additional guidance on writing and publishing, which will evolve with changing standards and practices.