System Theory in Tanzania – How can System Theory help to improve the quality of Education in Tanzania?
Conception of System Theory
System Theory originated from the General System Theory which was proposed by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the years 1948. By that time, there was reductionism system which entails that the complex system is nothing but its parts (Bartalanfyy, 2015). Therefore, Ludwig reached against such a system so as to revive the unity among the parts in the organization.
He recognized a need for a unified and disciplined approach in understanding and dealing with increasing complexities – that are beyond the competence of any single discipline (Penn State, n.d, para. 1-4). The theory pursues scientific exploration, understanding, and controlling of systems so as to meet the desired goals.
Ross Ashby point of view on Systems Theory
System theory was later furthered by Ross Ashby in 1964 with his concept of Cybernetics (Penn State, n.d. para. 1-4). Cybernetics means steersman in Greek. Wiener introduced this idea as the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine (Acuna, 2011).
The idea was first described to illustrate the transmission of information through communication channels and the concept of feedback. It evolved to emphasize the constructive power of the observer, who controls and constructs models of the systems with which the observer interacts with.
Summary of the theory
Therefore System Theory is the sub-emergence of the General System, by the being the system described broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge.
The System Theory distinguishes dynamic or active systems from static or passive systems (P. Rocchi, 2000). Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. Passive systems are structures and components that are being processed. For examples, a program is passive when it is a disc file and active when it runs in memory (Gould, 2012). Upon that, General System Theory made System Theory to be born.
System Theory can generally be described as providing approach to understanding, analyzing and thinking about organization. It also views organization as an organism comprises of many parts. These parts are what the theory describes as being subsystems which must work together in harmony for further larger system (Hanel, 2018). In real context, subsystem are like department, workgroup, business units, employers, and many other examples.
Generally System theory is identified through the following characteristics. Some of the very notable features of the theory are; Communication, it is the feature of system theory which describe the flow of information within the organization and outside the organization. Another feature is goal-directedness which explain the vision and missions of the organization also the theory has holistic view as another characteristics (Morais, 2018).
Holistic view means the arrangement and relationships among the parts which connect them into a whole. The theory is ideally based on the following elements; input, through-put, output, process and feedback.
System Theory in Tanzania